Archive for January 2013
Recently, I found a paper published in mBIO that describes how antibiotic use in farming is involved in the spread of resistance genes. In this case the work focuses on the humble honeybee (Apis mellifera). Since the 1950s, beekeepers in the USA have been using the antibiotic oxytetracycline – a ‘broad-spectrum’ antibiotic that kills most species of bacteria – to prevent infections that can cause ‘foul brood’, a disease that kills bee larvae. As you can imagine, using a single antibiotic for more than 50 years has led to some selective pressure. In this work, researchers from Yale University were investigating the prevalence of disease resistance in bee gut bacteria.
This might seem like a strange place to look, but it actually has its advantages. Unlike the supremely complex ecosystem of the human gut microbiome, the bee’s is pretty simple, with eight species making up over 95% of the gut bacteria in adult worker bees. The small number of species and the knowledge of how hives have been treated allowed the researchers to monitor the impact of decades of antibiotic use.
Sometimes you find a paper with a title so intriguing you just have to find out a little more about it. Recently, I came across a paper about ‘entombed pigs’, so how could I possibly ignore it? I learned a fair bit about animal-disease control methods in Asia and the use of quicklime to decompose corpses , a fairly standard weekend for me.
The work centres on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a viral infection of hoofed animals caused by Aphthovirus. It causes significant suffering in animals and has serious economic consequences: a 2001 outbreak is estimated to have cost the UK £8 billion.
Millions of infected animals were culled in South Korea in 2010/11, then buried (rather than burnt, as they are in the UK). The slaughtered animals were placed in five-metre-deep pits and covered with quicklime and copious amounts of soil to prevent the FMD spreading. Problem solved? Well, perhaps not.